Protractor vs Selenium: What are the major differences?

By admin 19 Min Read

Protractor is an end-to-end test, full-stack framework for Angular and AngularJS apps. Protractor is helpful for testing applications in a real browser and interacts with it as if it were a user. Selenium, on the other hand, is a  Web Browser Automation tool. Selenium automates browser testing. It is mainly used to automate web applications for testing reasons. However, it is not restricted to that. For example, tedious web-based administrative procedures may also be automated with Selenium.

In addition, Protractor belongs to the Javascript Testing Framework category, while Selenium belongs to the Browser Testing category.

Let us now look at them individually.

What Is Protractor?

Protractor is an excellent testing tool for web application testing from start to finish. It is a popular online application testing solution because it features a well-balanced mix of NodeJS, Selenium WebDriver, Jasmine, Cucumber, and Mocha.

As a testing tool framework, Protractor was created to support the testing of AngularJS apps, but it can also test non-AngularJS applications. Google developers first developed it before becoming an open-source framework.

What Are Protractor’s features?

  • Protractor, a popular end-to-end testing framework, offers several valuable features that enhance the testing process for web applications:
  • Multi-Browser Testing: Protractor facilitates testing across multiple commonly used browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Safari, IE11, and Edge. It provides a streamlined and efficient approach to conduct testing on different browsers, ensuring that the application behaves consistently across various browser environments.
  • Angular and Non-Angular Support: Protractor is not limited to testing Angular applications only. It is equally beneficial for testing both Angular and Non-Angular web applications. This versatility allows testing teams to utilize Protractor for a wide range of web projects, regardless of the underlying framework or technology stack.
  • Parallel Execution: Protractor includes a parallel execution feature that enables analysts to execute tests concurrently across multiple instances of the application. This capability significantly improves the overall testing speed and efficiency, allowing for faster feedback and quicker identification of any issues or bugs.
  • Enhanced Stability: Protractor leverages WebDriver, which provides a stable and reliable interaction with the browser. 
  • Easy Integration: Protractor seamlessly integrates with other tools and frameworks commonly used in the JavaScript ecosystem, such as Jasmine and Mocha. 

What Are the Best Protractor IDEs?

  • Microsoft Visual Studio Code
  • Sublime Text/Atom Editor
  • Eclipse
  • Professional Edition of Visual Studio
  • Webstorm

What is Selenium?

Selenium is a widely used open-source testing tool specifically designed for automating web application testing. It provides a framework and a set of tools that allow testers to automate various aspects of web application testing, including interaction with web browsers, user input, data validation, and result verification.

Selenium is versatile and can be utilized to test web applications at different stages of development, from early prototyping to fully functional production systems. It supports multiple programming languages such as Java, Python, C#, and more, enabling testers to choose their preferred language for writing test scripts.

What Are Selenium’s Instruments?

Selenium is a complete suite licensed under Apache License 2.0. It is made up of four separate instruments:

  • Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
  • WebDriver
  • Selenium Remote Control (RC)
  • Selenium Grid

Selenium Integrated Development Environment: 

This is like the simplest of the Selenium suite. It is a Firefox addon used by analysts to track the success of work processes and progress. It is simple to implement and works well with other modules as well. This tool contains essential features, and many analyzers use it for prototyping. Furthermore, it is user-friendly and straightforward to use.

Selenium WebDriver

Selenium WebDriver is a key component of the Selenium testing framework, known for its advanced and stable capabilities in web application testing. It allows direct communication with web browsers, enabling seamless interaction with elements and retrieval of results without relying on a separate Selenium server.

One notable advantage of Selenium WebDriver is its streamlined approach to browser interaction, which leads to faster and more efficient test automation. Testers can utilize its programming interface to write automation scripts in their preferred programming language, enhancing flexibility and ease of use.

An additional benefit of Selenium WebDriver is its independence from JavaScript for automation. Instead, it leverages the built-in automation capabilities of web browsers, ensuring accurate and reliable interactions with web elements. This approach contributes to more robust and consistent test results.

Selenium WebDriver supports multiple programming languages, including widely used ones such as Java, C#, PHP, Python, Ruby, and Perl. This broad language support empowers testers to work with their language of choice, enhancing productivity and facilitating seamless integration into existing software development workflows.

Selenium Grid

Selenium Grid is a powerful testing tool specifically designed to enhance the efficiency and fairness of test execution across multiple applications and environments. It achieves this through the utilization of “nodes” and “hubs.”

The primary advantage of employing Selenium Grid is its ability to execute tests in parallel, leveraging the resources of multiple nodes simultaneously. This parallel execution capability greatly increases the test throughput as multiple tests can be run concurrently in different environments. Consequently, the overall execution time is significantly reduced, resulting in a more efficient testing process.

Moreover, Selenium Grid facilitates the execution of tests across a wide range of browsers, operating systems, and versions. This comprehensive testing coverage ensures that applications undergo rigorous testing across various configurations, leading to improved software quality and reliability.

By harnessing the capabilities of Selenium Grid, testing teams can optimize their efforts, achieve faster execution times, and ensure thorough test coverage across diverse application environments. This tool empowers testers to deliver high-quality software that performs consistently across different platforms, meeting the expectations and requirements of end-users.

Protractor vs Selenium: What are the differences?

Let us take a comparative view of both testing frameworks to see their differences and similarities.

  • With Selenium, you may automate web applications using the Selenium WebDriver and any programming language you choose. However, when you’re fed up with Selenium’s handling of ajax and angular delays, Protractor can come to the rescue.
  • While Selenium provides comprehensive support for a wide variety of web application testing requirements, Protractor is only a wrapper built on WebDriver JS. As a result, there are no new verticals for program computerization.
  • Selenium and Protractor are both available for Windows and Linux.
  • The technology is shown and widely used using Selenium.
  • The structure grows and becomes almost as hard with Protractor.
  • Selenium provides good options for finders, but Protractor offers fewer options.
  • Selenium works well with Angular sites, and Protractor is explicitly designed for Angular pages, although it also works well with non-Angular pages.
  • Selenium supports a variety of unit testing formats, including TestNg and Junit. Protractor, on the other hand, works well with Jasmine and Mocha architectures.
  • Both Selenium and Protractor are examples of open-source software.
  • The presentation of Selenium is faster for a non-Angular web application.
  • Protractor also provides faster execution while dealing with Angular apps.

Protractor vs Selenium: Which is More Effective?

Both Selenium and Protractor can be used for Angular application automation. However, Protractor was designed expressly for angular app testing, and it is advised that you utilize it ahead of Selenium while testing angular apps. For other online automation testing purposes, use Selenium.

What Are the Types of Software Testing?

There are two sorts of testing procedures in software testing: manual and automated. Both types try to run the test case and compare the actual result to the predicted result.

Simply put, manual testing is a testing approach that uses manual processes to guarantee that the software code accomplishes what it is designed to do. On the contrary, automated testing is the technique of automatically conducting tests, organizing test data, and leveraging test findings to enhance software quality.

Why use automated testing?

If you’re acquainted with testing, you’re aware that consecutive development cycles need the execution of the same test suite several times. When done manually, this technique may be exceedingly repetitious and time-consuming. However, using a test automation tool makes it easy to design the test suite and replay it as needed, reducing human involvement and enhancing testing ROI.

What Are the Advantages of Automation Testing

Make test execution easier.

Test scripts may be reused as often as needed using automated testing solutions, saving time and effort. However, for manual testing, you must repeatedly write every single code line for the same test scenario.

Reduce humans Inputs and efforts

You may conduct automated tests with the deployment of automation technologies. Once written, the tests may be reused and run indefinitely without extra effort and expenses. 

Acceleration test

In automated testing, the speed of test execution and test coverage improves, resulting in shorter software development cycles.

Expand test coverage across many platforms

Automation testing allows you to test on various platforms at the same time without having to create a large number of test cases in different browser versions.

What Are The Best Automation Testing Frameworks?


It is an open-source framework, built with Node.js. Protractor is an automated testing framework that can be downloaded for free. It provides comprehensive testing for online applications that are built with AngularJS. It is compatible with Angular apps as well as non-Angular ones.

Protractor provides a powerful automation test suite that can do Cross Browser Testing for online applications by using the power of multiple technologies such as NodeJS, Selenium Webdriver, Jasmine, Mocha, and Cucumber, amongst others.


Selenium has established such a strong reputation in the automation testing community that it is sometimes believed that if you are an automation tester, you are already familiar with the Selenium Grid. Selenium enjoys large use cases from businesses and individuals because it is a conglomerate of different tools.


WebdriverIO is one of the most exceptional test automation frameworks that stand out in software testing. It seamlessly integrates with both the Webdriver protocol and the Chrome Devtools protocol, granting users a wide range of capabilities. This framework has earned a well-deserved reputation as one of the top choices for test automation.

WebdriverIO follows an open-source approach. It built on the powerful Node.js platform. Its open nature encourages collaboration and innovation within the testing community. Thanks to its compatibility with Selenium, you can effortlessly conduct Selenium automated testing using WebdriverIO. Whether you prefer executing tests locally or leveraging cloud-based solutions like LambdaTest, WebdriverIO has got you covered. Its flexibility allows you to adapt to various testing environments and meet your specific needs.


Cucumber is a fantastic tool for test automation that has gained immense popularity. It simplifies the process of creating automation tests by utilizing the BDD (Behavior-Driven Development) language. What sets BDD tests apart is that they resemble everyday English, making them easier to read and understand. Instead of memorizing complex syntax or commands, you can write test scenarios in a more natural, human-like format.

Behind the scenes, Cucumber translates these English-like scenarios into computer code, enabling seamless execution. Although initially developed for the Ruby programming language, Cucumber now supports multiple programming languages. This flexibility has contributed to its widespread adoption and recognition as one of the most influential test automation frameworks available.

To maximize the benefits of Cucumber, it’s essential to follow some best practices. By leveraging these guidelines, you can make the most of Cucumber’s capabilities and optimize your test automation efforts.


Appium is truly a remarkable framework that deserves the recognition as one of the best choices for automated testing. It specifically focuses on testing native, hybrid, and mobile web applications, making it a versatile tool for mobile app testing. 

Additionally, the testing too can also be used for testing mobile web applications, further expanding its utility. What sets Appium apart is its core principle: testing native applications should be hassle-free and should not require integrating an SDK or recompiling your app. This approach simplifies the testing process and saves developers valuable time and effort. With Appium, you can seamlessly automate your tests without any complex setup or modifications to your app code. 

Another advantage of Appium is its cost-effectiveness, as it is available for free. Moreover, it seamlessly integrates with various tools and frameworks that you may already be using, allowing you to leverage your existing testing infrastructure. This flexibility makes Appium a popular choice among developers and QA professionals alike.


Cypress takes its commitments seriously and genuinely fulfills its promise to give users a flawless testing experience. This platform’s open-source design enables a thorough testing procedure that covers all angles from beginning to end. It’s no surprise that Cypress is regarded as one of the best test automation frameworks available given the extensive range of capabilities that are specifically created for Cypress automation testing.

When it comes to front-end testing, Cypress excels with its extraordinary speed and effectiveness. It makes sure that your tests go quickly and smoothly and recognizes the value of prompt feedback. Moreover, Cypress integrates effortlessly into your current development workflow because it is based on JavaScript, one of the most popular web languages.


Is Selenium suitable for mobile testing?

Yes, Selenium and Appium may be used together to automate website testing on iOS devices.

Testing websites on actual iOS devices assist teams in identifying any flaws that an end-user may experience in the real world. In addition, this guarantees that applications and websites have been fully tested and can provide a faultless user experience.

What is Protractor Framework?

Protractor blend with different testing frameworks like NodeJS, Selenium WebDriver, Jasmine, Cucumber, and Mocha to make it an excellent choice for web application testing. Its versatile and powerful features empower testers to conduct thorough and effective testing of their online applications.

Is Protractor a good testing framework?

Yes, it is but more importantly uses it for Angularjs web apps for the best results.

What is the architecture of the Selenium mobile testing framework?

Selenium is used with the Appium server to automate browser testing on mobile devices. 

At the highest level: The JSON wire protocol is used by the Appium server to take test instructions from the Client in the form of an HTTP restful request.

The Appium server performs these instructions on specific mobile devices using native automation drivers based on the Desired Capabilities.

Why is Selenium so popular for mobile testing?

Selenium is a popular web browser automation tool. Its simple API and interoperability with various client libraries make cross-browser testing a breeze for teams.

Appium is a fork of Selenium that utilizes the same WebDriver API to drive mobile browsers on Android and iOS. As a result, Appium facilitates mobile testing with Selenium WebDriver for teams or individuals who have previous experience working with Selenium.

How can I use Selenium to test real-world mobile devices?

Appium may be used in tandem with Selenium WebDriver since they both utilize the same WebDriver API. Thus, it is simple for developers or QAs with previous WebDriver test knowledge to utilize Appium for mobile testing with Selenium scripts.

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